Authors
^{1} Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
^{2} Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Abstract
Keywords
Using a suitable equation is an essential solution for predicting the thermodynamic properties of fluids in the design and simulation of thermodynamic processes. Although there are many thermodynamic tables and charts that provide detailed information on the thermodynamic properties of fluids, an accurate equation is necessary to correctly predict the thermodynamic properties of fluids in a wide range of temperature and pressure using to design and simulate the thermodynamic cycles.
So far, many of equations of state were suggested such as primary simple equations with a few of parameters and modern equations that are complex but accurate. In the primary equation of state, the pressure is a function of other properties such as temperature and volume so these equations are named the pressureexplicit equation of state while new equations are explicated on Helmholtz energy. These equations that are known as the fundamental equations of state are more complex than pressureexplicit equations but have higher accuracy in the calculation of the thermodynamic properties in a wide range of temperature and pressure. The main advantage of these equations is that there is no need for integration for driving other thermodynamic properties. All required thermodynamic properties can be obtained with differentiating of Helmholtz energy with high accuracy. Due to the applicability of these equations in accurately predicting thermalphysical properties, extensive research is done on the development of these equations. Most of the works were done on this subject are about presenting a model based on Helmholtz energy or using previous models and calculating the thermodynamic properties of fluids and then comparing them with experimental data. Jacobsen et al. presented a thermodynamic property formulation for nitrogen from the freezing line to 2000 K at pressures to 1000 MPa. The given relation can be used for thermodynamic property calculation with uncertainty 0.1% for the pressure and density, 0.2% for thermal capacities and 2% for the values of speed of sound. The formulation is not recommended near the critical point (Jacobsen, Stewart, & Jahangiri, 1986). Dillon and Penoncello presented a formulation for the thermodynamic properties of ethanol (C_{2}H_{5}OH) in the liquid, vapor, and saturation. The formulation presented may be used to compute densities with uncertainty 0.2%, heat capacities with uncertainty 3%, and speed of sound with uncertainty 1%. Saturation values of the vapor pressure and saturation densities are represented with uncertainty ±0.5%, except near the critical point (Dillon & Penoncello, 2004). Leachman et al. developed a form of the fundamental equation of state for parahydrogen, normal hydrogen, and orthohydrogen and then calculated the thermodynamic properties of them. The uncertainties of vapor pressures and saturated liquid densities vary from 0.1% to 0.2%. Heat capacities are generally estimated to be accurate to within 1%, while speedofsound values are accurate to within 0.5% below 100MPa (Leachman, Jacobsen, Penoncello, & Lemmon, 2009). Bücker and Wagner calculated the thermodynamic properties of ethane in the temperature range of the melting line up to 675 K and the pressure up to 900 MPa. The uncertainty in the calculation of density was less than 0.02%–0.03% from the melting line up to temperatures of 520 K and pressures of 30 MPa. In the gaseous and supercritical region, the high precision speed of sound data is represented generally within less than 0.015%. The primary data, to which the equation was fitted, cover the fluid region from the melting line to temperatures of 675 K and pressures of 900 MPa. Beyond this range, the equation shows reasonable extrapolation behavior up to very high temperatures and pressures (Bücker & Wagner, 2006). EstelaUribe developed a model based on Helmholtz energy for calculating the thermodynamic properties of a group of refrigerants. He predicted thermodynamic properties of 19 refrigerant and reported following percentage overall absolute average deviations: 0.187 for pT data, 0.229 for saturation pressures, 0.206 for saturatedliquid densities, 1.053 for saturatedvapor densities, 1.734 for isochoric heat capacities, 1.238 for isobaric heat capacities and 0.662 for speeds of sound (EstelaUribe, 2014). EstelaUribe also predicted the thermodynamic properties of nonpolar fluids and their mixtures such as natural gases using an improved Helmholtz energy model (EstelaUribe, 2013a, 2013b, 2013c). Thol et al. predicted the thermodynamic properties of Hexamethyldisiloxane (Thol, Dubberke, Rutkai, Windmann, Köster, Span, & Vrabec, 2015) and ethylene oxide ( Thol, Rutkai, Köster, Kortmann, Span, & Vrabec, 2015) using fundamental equation of state correlation based on experimental and molecular simulation data. Gernert and Span presented an equation of state and the EOS–CG mixture model for thermodynamic properties of humid gases, combustion gases and CO2rich mixtures typical for Carbon Capture and Storage processes (Gernert & Span, 2016). They use the mathematical structure of Kunz and Wagner in their work (Kunz & Wagner, 2012). Grigoriev et al. proposed a new mixture model, explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy, for modeling the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of technological oil fractions. The model covers a broad temperature and pressure range in gaseous, liquid, and supercritical regions (Grigoriev, Alexandrov & Gerasimov, 2018).
This study aims to predict the thermodynamic properties of cryogenic refrigerants using fundamental equations of state and calculate the uncertainty in the wide range of temperature and pressure to evaluate the applicability of these equations in the prediction of thermodynamic properties of these refrigerants. Using a developed computer code based on fundamental equations of state, thermodynamic properties of Helium and Neon including density, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, isobaric specific heat capacity, and isochoric heat capacity are calculated. By comparing the results of predictions with the valid reference data is (Jacobsen, Penoncello & Lemmon, 1997), the scope of this equation to predict the thermodynamic properties of Helium and Neon are offered. In earlier work, not only the prediction of the thermodynamic properties of cryogenic refrigerants such as Helium and Neon not considered, but also providing a diagram that easily presents the applicability of fundamental equation of state in different ranges of temperature and pressure has been neglected. In the following section, a brief description is provided of the types of equations of state. Then the fundamental equations and how to obtain thermodynamic properties have been obtained. Finally, the results of comparing the reference data and predicted thermodynamic properties using fundamental equations of state are presented.
The most common thermodynamic properties that are measured and used in the equations of state are pressure, temperature and specific volume (or its reverse, the density). Primary types of the equation of state make a correlation between the thermodynamic properties in which the pressure is expressed as a function of temperature and density (or specific volume). The general form of the pressureexplicit equation of state is (Jacobsen, Penoncello & Lemmon, 1997):
(1) 
Virial equation of state (equation 2), cubic equations of state (equation 3) such as Van der Waals and PengRobinson and LeeKesler equations of state are the most common pressure explicit equations of state. The typical pressure explicit equation of state must be integrated for the calculation of enthalpy and entropy (Jacobsen, Penoncello & Lemmon, 1997).
(2) 

(3) 

In the secondary form of the equation of state, Helmholtz energy is used as a dependent variable (Jacobsen, Penoncello & Lemmon, 1997):
(4) 
This form of the equation of state is named the fundamental equation of state. Therefore, on this basis, equations of state are divided into two general categories:
As mentioned, the fundamental form of the equation of state is implicit in the Helmholtz energy. This form of the equation has some advantages over other forms of the equation of state. An inherent advantage in fundamental equations of state is that all thermodynamic properties can be derived with relatively simple differentiation.
Schmidt and Wagner developed a 32term fundamental equation in 1985 (Jacobsen, Penoncello, & Lemmon, 1997). Although this form was developed for oxygen, it has been used by other investigators for correlating properties of other fluids. The equation is explicit in dimensionless Helmholtz energy. Jacobsen et al. developed a general form of the fundamental equation similar to that of Schmidt and Wagner which has been used for correlating thermodynamic properties of several cryogens. The functional form of this equation is (Jacobsen, Penoncello & Lemmon, 1997):
(5) 
where , , and and are critical temperature and critical density respectively. The Helmholtz energy consists of two parts: the ideal gas contribution part ( ), and the residual part of the Helmholtz energy .
The ideal gas portion is given by (Jacobsen, Penoncello & Lemmon, 1997):
(6) 
where and are as defined below. Also, and are arbitrary values for enthalpy and entropy at standard temperature ( ) and pressure (
(7) 

(8) 
The residual part of the Helmholtz energy is given by (Jacobsen, Penoncello & Lemmon, 1997)
(9) 
where for terms with and for terms where . It is generally expected that the and are positive integers and the are real numbers (positive or negative).
As mentioned, the fundamental equation of states allows computing other thermodynamic properties with differentiation of Helmholtz energy. Table 1 shows examples of functions for obtaining the thermodynamic properties from Helmholtz energy. These functions can be used easily in computer programs.
To calculate the thermodynamic properties of Helium and Neon, coefficients and parameters reported by Jacobsen et al. were used (Jacobsen, Penoncello, & Lemmon, 1997). Thermodynamic properties were calculated at pressures 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 MPa with temperature step of 10 °C at low temperatures and 100 °C at high temperatures from saturated point up to 1500 °C for Helium and 650 °C for Neon, using a developed computer code in MATLAB software. Since in the fundamental equations of state, Helmholtz energy has been explicit in terms of temperature and density, the equation should be solved numerically to obtain thermodynamic properties at a given temperature and pressure. Therefore, at a given temperature, the NewtonRaphson method was used to achieve the corresponding density to the desired pressure with an approximation of 0.000001 MPa.
Table 1. functions for calculation of thermodynamic properties from Helmholtz (Jacobsen, Penoncello, & Lemmon, 1997)
Property 
Relation 
Pressure 

Internal energy 

Entropy 

Enthalpy 

Isochoric heat capacity 

Isobaric heat capacity 
Using a developed computational code based on fundamental equation of state, thermodynamic properties of gases Helium and Neon were calculated as two cryogenic refrigerants. By comparison, these calculated properties with reference (Jacobsen, Penoncello & Lemmon, 1997), the applicability diagrams of the fundamental equation of state were provided for these two refrigerants. Also, forecast errors of thermodynamic properties inside the applicability region are presented. The thermodynamic properties were calculated for pressures up to 100 MPa and in the temperature range 10 to 1500 K and 30 to 650 K, respectively for Helium and Neon. A standard reverseBrayton cryocooler cycle for longlength HighTemperature Superconducting cable systems is one of the most application of the range studied in this investigation (Hou, Zhao, Chen, & Xiong, 2006) and (Maboudi & Zia Bashrhagh, 2015).
5.1 Thermodynamic properties of Helium
As an example, Table 2 shows a part of the thermodynamic property table obtained for Helium using the fundamental equation of state. Figure 1 shows a comparison between the entropy of Helium gas calculated using the fundamental equations of state and reference data (Jacobsen, Penoncello & Lemmon, 1997) in various temperatures and pressures. As can be seen in this figure, the difference between the results obtained from the fundamental equations of state and the reference data is negligible, which indicates the capability of the fundamental equations of states in the calculation of the thermodynamic properties of gases. These comparisons were done about other thermodynamic properties of Helium and adaptation of results with reference data was investigated. In Figure 2, the applicability region of the fundamental equation of state for predicting the thermodynamic properties of Helium can be seen on the temperatureentropy graph for different pressures. Forecast errors of thermodynamic properties of Helium in high accuracy region are presented in Table 3.
Table 2. Thermodynamic properties of Helium
Temp.

Density

Internal Energy

Enthalpy

Entropy

C_{v}

C_{p} ( 


P=0.1 MPa 


4.2163 
16.41700 
24.55547 
30.61263 
8.520723 
3.240029 
8.988085 

10 
4.920719 
45.08910 
65.29761 
13.84447 
3.114800 
5.425187 

20 
2.394672 
76.84773 
118.3734 
17.52999 
3.120772 
5.249881 

30 
1.592025 
108.2165 
170.6781 
19.65120 
3.119743 
5.217455 

60 
0.796100 
201.9026 
326.8120 
23.25939 
3.117620 
5.198080 

100 
0.478019 
326.6140 
534.6401 
25.91357 
3.116729 
5.194345 

150 
0.318834 
482.4395 
794.3275 
28.01946 
3.116338 
5.193378 

200 
0.239187 
638.2455 
1053.989 
29.51346 
3.116168 
5.193115 

300 
0.159500 
949.8399 
1573.292 
31.61906 
3.116021 
5.192992 

400 
0.119640 
1261.427 
2092.590 
33.11299 
3.115958 
5.192979 

800 
0.059831 
2507.762 
4169.788 
36.71249 
3.115883 
5.193010 

1200 
0.039889 
3754.095 
6246.996 
38.81808 
3.115864 
5.193030 

1500 
0.031912 
4688.845 
7804.906 
39.97687 
3.115857 
5.193038 
Figure 1. Entropy of Helium vs temperature in different pressures
Figure 2. Applicability area of fundamental equation of state in predicting the thermodynamic properties of Helium.
Table 3. Relative error of predicting thermodynamic properties of Helium in high accuracy area shown in figure 2
Average error% 
Maximum error% 
Minimum error% 
Property 
0.54 
0.57 
0.11 
Density 
0.00 
0.31 
0.00 
Internal energy 
0.01 
0.39 
0.00 
Enthalpy 
0.05 
0.10 
0.03 
Entropy 
0.01 
0.64 
0.00 
Isochoric heat capacity 
0.03 
3.37 
0.00 
Isobaric heat capacity 
Figure 3 shows the relative error percentage of the results on the boundary of the applicability area of the fundamental equation of states (the line between the green and brown areas in Figure 2) in predicting the thermodynamic properties of Helium. According to the graph, it is shown that relative error of density, unlike other thermodynamic properties, decreases with increasing pressure. The maximum error is related to the isobaric heat capacity and isochoric heat capacity which is 3.37% and 0.94% respectively. The relative error of other thermodynamic properties on the boundary between high and low accuracy areas does not exceed 0.6%. The relative error in the low accuracy area shown in Figure 2, is above 5%.
Figure 3. Relative error of thermodynamic properties of Helium using fundamental equation of states on the boundary between high and low accuracy areas shown in figure 2
5.2 Thermodynamic properties of Neon
Table 4 shows a selection of thermodynamic properties of Neon that were calculated using the fundamental equation of state. Figure 4 compares the entropy of Neon gas calculated using the fundamental equations of state with entropy obtained from reference data(Jacobsen, Penoncello & Lemmon, 1997) in various temperatures and pressures. As can be seen in this figure, the difference between the results calculated using the fundamental equations of state and the reference data is negligible. These comparisons were done for other thermodynamic properties of Neon and adaptation of results with reference data was investigated.Figure 5 shows the areas with acceptable and high accuracy of the fundamental equations of state to predict the thermodynamic properties of Neon gas. The relative error of calculating the thermodynamic properties in the area with high accuracy can be seen in Table 5. For Neon in the acceptable accuracy area of the fundamental equations of state, the maximum error in the calculation of the thermodynamic properties was 5.42 %, which is related to the isobaric heat capacity.
Figure 6 shows the relative error percentage of the results on the boundary of the applicability area of the fundamental equation of states (the line between the green and yellow areas shown in Figure 5) in predicting the thermodynamic properties of Neon. According to the graph, the relative error percentage of thermodynamic properties on the boundary between high and acceptable accuracy areas of the fundamental equation of states does not exceed 1% except density that its relative error percentage is little more than 1 %. The relative error of all thermodynamic properties in acceptable accuracy area in figure 5 is in the range of 1% to 5%, except isobaric heat capacity that its relative error percentage is little more than 5 %. The relative error in the low accuracy area, shown in Figure 5, is above 5%.
Table 4. Thermodynamic properties of Helium
Temp.

Density

Internal Energy

Enthalpy

Entropy

C_{v}

C_{p} ( 
P= 0.1 MPa 

27.061 
8.891836 
18.11989 
29.35858 
4.831906 
0.576348 
0.906184 
30 
8.100149 
19.43684 
31.77397 
4.916676 
0.477713 
0.832618 
35 
6.984547 
21.94122 
36.2489 
5.054416 
0.550370 
0.944077 
40 
6.114363 
24.76466 
41.10857 
5.184128 
0.583875 
0.992979 
50 
4.880505 
30.75937 
51.23525 
5.409971 
0.607413 
1.024568 
60 
4.058377 
36.90119 
61.52498 
5.597556 
0.614104 
1.031705 
80 
3.036388 
49.27353 
82.18520 
5.894725 
0.617392 
1.033313 
100 
2.426494 
61.66107 
102.8450 
6.125233 
0.618015 
1.032623 
120 
2.021051 
74.04470 
123.4906 
6.313441 
0.618165 
1.031963 
160 
1.515216 
98.79836 
164.7511 
6.610195 
0.618201 
1.031158 
200 
1.212067 
123.5403 
205.9884 
6.840242 
0.618182 
1.030751 
300 
0.808079 
185.3721 
309.0389 
7.258082 
0.618136 
1.030341 
400 
0.606111 
247.1899 
412.0651 
7.554470 
0.618110 
1.030203 
600 
0.404122 
370.8112 
618.0944 
7.972160 
0.618083 
1.030111 
650 
0.373044 
401.7152 
669.5997 
8.054613 
0.618079 
1.030101 
Figure 4. Entropy of Neon vs temperature in different pressures
Figure 5. Applicability area of fundamental equation of state in predicting the thermodynamic properties of Neon
Table 5. Relative error of predicting thermodynamic properties of Neonin high accuracy area shown in figure 5
Average error% 
Maximum error% 
Minimum error% 
Property 
0.24 
0.99 
0.06 
Density 
0.13 
0.86 
0.00 
Internal energy 
0.15 
0.79 
0.00 
Enthalpy 
0.02 
0.10 
0.00 
Entropy 
0.03 
0.57 
0.00 
Isochoric heat capacity 
0.17 
1.10 
0.00 
Isobaric heat capacity 
Figure 6. Relative error of thermodynamic properties of Neon on the boundary between high and acceptable accuracy areas of fundamental equation of states
Using a developed computational code based on the fundamental equation of state, the thermodynamic properties of two refrigerants Helium and Neon were predicted. By comparison, the results with reference data (Jacobsen, Penoncello & Lemmon, 1997), the pressure and temperature area in which the fundamental equation of state can be applied with high accuracy, were presented. Due to error of computation the thermodynamic properties in these areas, the accuracy of equations to predict thermodynamic properties of the cryogenic refrigerants in a wide range of temperature and pressure were approved. Most of the equations are effective only for certain areas of temperature and pressure however the fundamental equations of state can meet this problem greatly. In the applicability area of the fundamental equations of state with high accuracy area, the average relative errors of predicting thermodynamic properties of Helium is about 0.54, 0.01, and 0.05 percent respectively for density, enthalpy, and entropy. These errors for Neon are about 0.24, 0.15, and 0.02 percent respectively for density, enthalpy, and entropy. Due to the small amount of error in the calculation of the thermodynamic properties, these equations can be used for computer simulation of thermodynamic cycles in the gaseous phase.